In the world of education, it is known that one of the theories used by someone in learning, the cognitive theory is one of them. Cognitivism theory emphasizes that learning is a process that occurs in the human mind. Although learning is a process that involves mental activity in humans themselves.
Cognitive theory is very commonly associated with the learning process, the learning process occurs because of the barrier variables in aspects of one’s cognition. Aubusel and Brunner are the developers of this character, the process of active interaction with the environment is carried out to obtain a change, it can be in the form of knowledge, understanding, behavior to skills.
Understanding Cognitivism Theory
Cognitivism learning theory recognizes the importance of individual factors in learning without ignoring external factors, such as the environment so that the knowledge gained is non-objective, for a while until it is always changing. In this theory, the brain functions as a means of interpreting until a unique meaning emerges.
This theory also recognizes the concept that learning is the result of a continuous interaction of a person and his environment through the process of assimilation and accommodation. With this theory, a student can have broader knowledge and experience and it will be stored in their memory.
The cognitive theory makes students trained to think intelligently when solving problems at hand. Students are required to explore knowledge independently, according to the explanation of the psychology figure, Jean Piaget, regarding the theory of cognitivism and the importance of using reasonings when learning something.
Characteristics of Cognitivism Stream
In short, cognitivism is making students who learn, not only memorize but what is more important is how a student captures the meaning of the learning process that is being carried out. This makes this theory has several special characteristics, here are some characteristics of the cognitive learning flow.
- More concerned with what is in humans.
- Focus on the parts of learning.
- Emphasize the role of cognitive.
- Focus on the current state of the time.
- Emphasize the formation of cognitive structures.
The hallmark of cognitivism theory is obtaining and using representative forms that represent the object when it is presented in a person. It can be through responses and ideas, all of which are mental. The type of knowledge gained by a student in the use of this theory will also be wider.
In a cognitivism sense, someone who learns has different abilities and that difference can cause a gap between them. This is where the role of a teacher is needed to control and make all students exist in a balanced condition, even though the teacher as a supervisor is not able to control the differences that arise.
Cognitivism Strengths and Disadvantages
After knowing what cognitivism theory means, understanding its advantages and disadvantages is also important. Because then the application of this theory can be more targeted.
For more details, see the review of the advantages and disadvantages of cognitivism below.
- Prioritizing the development of knowledge possessed by everyone, educators only need to provide basic material and continuation of learning depends on the individual.
- Educators can maximize the memory of students, this is necessary because one of the cognitive roles is to emphasize the memory of individuals who are learning.
- The cognitive meaning of the experts is the same as the creation or making of something new or something new from something that already exists, students are required to be creative.
- It is easy to apply and has been widely applied in the world of education in Indonesia, including at all school levels.
- The ability of students about memory is different, in cognitive theory all individuals are considered to have the same memory.
- Not paying attention to the way students develop knowledge and how to seek that knowledge.
- Students will certainly not understand the material provided fully if in learning only use this theory.
- For vocational schools, students will find it difficult to practice activities and materials if they only apply this theory.
- It should be noted that the ability of students to develop the material they have received will not develop if they are left alone.
Applications of Cognitivism Theory
- There are several applications that can be applied and utilized in the learning process using cognitive theory, including the following.
- Teachers must understand that all students are not adults who are easy to process a thought.
- Children in pre and early elementary school use real or concrete objects accompanied by active students.
- The teacher arranges the material using certain simple patterns or logic so that it is easily understood by the students.
- Teachers must create a meaningful learning process, taking into account the individual differences of students in order to achieve success.
That was a brief explanation of the meaning of cognitivism theory along with its flow and examples of its application. Want to learn more about cognitivism theory? Come study at Sampoerna University. For more info click here.